Pharmaco-Economics: The Cost of Health

  • A. K. Mohiuddin World University of Bangladesh
Keywords: Pharmacists, Healthcare expenditure, Hospitalization, Medication, Cost, Outcomes

Abstract

Pharmacoeconomics has been characterized as the depiction and examination of the cost of medication treatment to healthcare frameworks and society. All the more explicitly, pharmacoeconomic look into is the way toward recognizing, estimating, and contrasting the costs, dangers, and advantages of programs, services, or treatments and figuring out which elective delivers the best wellbeing result for the asset contributed. This data can help clinical chiefs in picking the most cost-effective treatment alternatives. Pharmacoeconomics is a division of results examine that can be utilized to measure the estimation of pharmaceutical care items and services. Pharmaceutical care has been characterized as the mindful arrangement of medication treatment for the reasons for accomplishing unequivocal results.

Author Biography

A. K. Mohiuddin, World University of Bangladesh

Faculty of Pharmacy, World University of Bangladesh
Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh

References

American Pharmacists Association (APhA), (2008); National Association of Chain Drug Stores Foundation. Medication Therapy Management Services; J Am Pharm Assoc. ; 48(3); 341-53

Ambrosioni E. (2001); Pharmacoeconomic challenges in disease management of hypertension; J Hypertens Suppl. ; 19(3); S33-40

Annual Report Of The Boards Of Trustees, (2012); Available From: https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/ReportsTrustFunds/downloads/tr2012.pdf

Ayele AA, Mekuria AB, Tegegn HG, Gebresillassie BM, Mekonnen AB, Erku DA, (2018); Management of minor ailments in a community pharmacy setting: Findings from simulated visits and qualitative study in Gondar town, Ethiopia. PLoS One.;13(1); e0190583

Auta A, Maz J, Strickland-Hodge B. (2015); Perceived facilitators to change in hospital pharmacy practice in England. Int J Clin Pharm. ; 37(6); 1068–1075.

Beijer HJ, de Blaey CJ. (2002); Hospitalisations caused by adverse drug reactions (ADR): a meta-analysis of observational studies. Pharm World Sci. ; 24(2); 46–54.

Bunting BA, Smith BH, Sutherland SE (2008); The Asheville Project: clinical and economic outcomes of a community-based long-term medication therapy management program for hypertension and dyslipidemia. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 48(1); 23–31.

Bekker CL, Gardarsdottir H, Egberts ACG, Bouvy ML, van den Bemt BJF. (2018); Pharmacists' Activities to Reduce Medication Waste: An International Survey; Pharmacy (Basel); 6(3); 94.

Bettington E, Spinks J, Kelly F, Wheeler AJ (2018); Returning unwanted medicines to pharmacies: prescribing to reduce waste; Aust Prescr ; 41(3) ; 78-81.

Babigumira, J.B., Stergachis, A., Choi, H.L. et al. (2014); A Framework for Assessing the Economic Value of Pharmacovigilance in Low- and Middle-Income Countries ; Drug Saf; 37(3); 127-34

Chabot I, LeLorier J, Blackstein ME. (2008); The challenge of conducting pharmacoeconomic evaluations in oncology using crossover trials: the example of sunitinib for gastrointestinal stromal tumour; Eur J Cancer.; 44(7); 972-977

Catić T, Skrbo S. (2013); Pharmacoeconomic education for pharmacy students in bosnia and Herzegovina; Mater Sociomed.; 25(4); 282-285.

Cutler RL, Fernandez-Llimos F, Frommer M, Benrimoj C, Garcia-Cardenas V. (2018); Economic impact of medication non-adherence by disease groups: a systematic review. BMJ Open.; 8(1); e016982.

Dalton K, Byrne S. (2017); Role of the pharmacist in reducing healthcare costs: current insights. Integr Pharm Res Pract. ; 6; 37-46

Dubois DJ. (2010); Grand challenges in pharmacoeconomics and health outcomes; Front Pharmacol. ; 1:7.

Drummond M. (2006); Pharmacoeconomics: friend or foe? Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 65; iii44-iii47.

Gyllensten H, Hakkarainen KM, Hägg S, et al. (2014); Economic impact of adverse drug events--a retrospective population-based cohort study of 4970 adults. PLoS One.; 9(3); e92061.

Gattani SG, Patil AB, Kushare SS. (2009); Pharmacoeconomics: A Review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research; 2(3); 15-26

Hall D, Buchanan J, Helms B, et al. (2011); Health care expenditures and therapeutic outcomes of a pharmacist-managed anticoagulation service versus usual medical care. Pharmacotherapy.; 31(7); 686–694.

Henry D, Taylor C. (2014); Pharmacoeconomics of Cancer Therapies: Considerations With the Introduction of Biosimilars; Seminars in Oncology; 41(2); Suppl 3; S13-S20

IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics (2015); Global Medicines use in 2020: Outlook and Implications. Available From: https://s3.amazonaws.com/assets.fiercemarkets.net/public/005-LifeSciences/imsglobalreport.pdf.

James TH, Helms ML, Braund R. (2009); Analysis of medications returned to community pharmacies; Ann Pharmacother. ; 43(10); 1631-1635

Jo C. (2014); Cost-of-illness studies: concepts, scopes, and methods; Clin Mol Hepatol; 20(4):327-337

Khdour MR, Kidney JC, Smyth BM, McElnay JC. (2009); Clinical pharmacyled disease and medicine management programme for patients with COPD; Br J Clin Pharmacol. ; 68(4); 588–598.

Lee JK, Grace KA, Taylor AJ. (2006); Effect of a pharmacy care program on medication adherence and persistence, blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a randomized controlled trial; JAMA.; 296(21); 2563–2571.

Latif A. (2018); Community pharmacy Medicines Use Review: current challenges; Integr Pharm Res Pract. ; 7; 83-92

Leendertse AJ, Egberts AC, Stoker LJ, van den Bemt PM. (2008); Frequency of and risk factors for preventable medication-related hospital admissions in the Netherlands; Arch Intern Med.; 168(17); 1890–1896.

Morello CM, Zadvorny EB, Cording MA, Suemoto RT, Skog J, Harari A. (2006); Development and clinical outcomes of pharmacist-managed diabetes care clinics; Am J Health Syst Pharm. ; 63(14); 1325–1331.

Milne RJ. (1994); Evaluation of the pharmacoeconomic literature. Pharmacoeconomics. ;6(4); 337-45.

McGhan WF, Rowland CR, Bootman JL. (1978); Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness: Methodologies for evaluating innovative pharmaceutical services; Am J Hosp Pharm. ; 35(2); 133–40.

NHS (2005); United-Kingdom Department of Health: Choosing health through pharmacy–a programme for pharmaceutical public health 2005–2015

Parkis R; Pharmacoeconomics - the importance for pharmacists; The Pharmaceutical Journal FEB 2006.

Rotta I, Salgado TM, Silva ML, Correr CJ, Fernandez-Llimos F. (2015); Effectiveness of clinical pharmacy services: an overview of systematic reviews (2000-2010); Int J Clin Pharm. ; 37(5); 687–697.

Sawyer RT, Odom JM, Jennings J, Orr J, Cass AL. (2016); Discharge medication reconciliation by pharmacists to improve transitions following hospitalization (DEPTH); GHS Proc ; 1(1); 32-37

Systems for Improved Access to Pharmaceuticals and Services (SIAPS) and USAID. Applying Principles of Pharmacoeconomics to Improve Medical Product Selection and Use in Low- and Middle-income Countries: Trainer’s Guide. http://siapsprogram.org/ August 2017.

Surji KM. (2015); Fundamental Understanding of Pharmacoeconomics as an Innovative Concept within the Modern Clinical Pharmacy in Today’s Healthcare System American Journal of Pharmacy and Health Research ; 3(5) ISSN: 2321–3647

TRASK L. Chapter 1. Pharmacoeconomics: Principles, Methods, and Applications. In: DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey L. eds. Pharmacotherapy: A Pathophysiologic Approach, 8e New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2011. http://accesspharmacy.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=462&sectionid=41100767. Accessed January 25, 2019.

Telser H, Fischer B, Leukert K, Vaterlaus S. Healthcare expenditure and illness-related costs. In InterPharmaPh Polynomics. Web Interpharma (Association of research-based pharmaceutical companies in Switzerland, Basel) September 2011. Available From:

https://www.interpharma.ch/sites/default/files/healthcare_expenditure_illness_related_costs_2011.pdf

Tinetti ME, Fried TR, Boyd CM. (2012); Designing health care for the most common chronic condition: multimorbidity. JAMA. ; 307(23); 2493–2494.

Usherwood T. (2017); Encouraging adherence to long-term medication; Aust Prescr. ; 40(4); 147-150.

Vogenberg FR, Santilli J. (2018); Healthcare Trends for 2018; Am Health Drug Benefits. ; 11(1); 48-54.

Waning B, Montagne M. Chapter 9. Principles of Pharmacoeconomics. In: Brenda Waning, Michael Montagne; Pharmacoepidemiology: Principles and Practice, published by McGraw-Hill, 2001

National Library of Canada (1997); Canadian Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment. Guidelines For Economic Evaluation Of Pharmaceuticals 2nd Edition: Canada Available From: https://www.cadth.ca/media/pdf/peg_e.pdf

Web Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Service (CMS). National Health Expenditure Data. Available From: https://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/NationalHealthAccountsHistorical.html

Web Pharmadost (2017); Pharmacoeconomics: Evaluation methods Available From: https://pharmadost.info/pharmacoeconomics-evaluation-methods/

Web Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). NHE Projections 2010–2020. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2011

Web Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation (2012); Health care costs: a primer. Available from: http:www.kff.org/insurance/upload/7670-7603.pdf.

Wheeler AJ, Spinks J, Bettington E, Kelly F. (2017); Evaluation of the National Return of unwanted medicines (RUM) program in Australia: a study protocol; J Pharm Policy Pract; 10; 38.

Yach D, Hawkes C, Gould CL, Hofman KJ. (2004); The global burden of chronic diseases: overcoming impediments to prevention and control; JAMA. ; 291(21); 2616–2622.

Published
2019-03-01
How to Cite
[1]
Mohiuddin, A.K. 2019. Pharmaco-Economics: The Cost of Health. PharmaTutor. 7, 3 (Mar. 2019), 1-18. DOI:https://doi.org/10.29161/PT.v7.i3.2019.1.
Section
Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)