Community Liaison Pharmacists in Home Care
The term “Home-based care” or simply home care may be defined as a wide array of different types of care provided in the home by a wide range of parties. The continuum of different types of home-based care delivered in the home varies in terms of different dimensions, including acuity, type of care provided, and degree of physician involvement. Home-based care includes both formal and informal personal care services, Medicare skilled home health, physician house calls, and even “hospital-at-home” services. Medication-related issues are basic among home care patients who take numerous medications and have complex medical chronicles and medical issues. The objectives of home social insurance administrations are to assist people with improving capacity and live with more prominent freedom; to advance the customer's ideal dimension of prosperity; and to help the patient to stay at home, maintaining a strategic distance from hospitalization or admission to long-term care foundations. Home care is an arrangement of care given by talented experts to patients in their homes under the bearing of a doctor. Home medicinal services administrations incorporate nursing care; physical, word related, and discourse language treatment; and medical social administrations. Doctors may allude patients for home medicinal services administrations, or the administrations might be asked for by relatives or patients. The scope of home human services benefits a patient can get at home is boundless. Contingent upon the individual patient's circumstance, care can extend from nursing care to specific medical administrations, for example, laboratory workups. Basic analyses among home medicinal services patients incorporate circulatory disease, coronary illness, damage and harming, musculoskeletal and connective tissue disease and respiratory disease.
Aydede SK, Komenda P, Djurdjev O, Levin A. (2014); Chronic kidney disease and support provided by home care services: a systematic review; BMC Nephrol; 15; 118.
American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) (2002); ASHP statement on the pharmacist’s role in hospice and palliative care; Am J Health Syst Pharm. ; 59(18);1770-3
Anderson SL, Marrs JC. (2018); A Review of the Role of the Pharmacist in Heart Failure Transition of Care; Adv Ther; 35(3); 311-323.
Aboumatar H, Naqibuddin M, Chung S, et al. (2018); Effect of a Program Combining Transitional Care and Long-term Self-management Support on Outcomes of Hospitalized Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial; JAMA; 320(22); 2335–2343
Atayee RS, Sam AM, Edmonds KP. (2018); Patterns of Palliative Care Pharmacist Interventions and Outcomes as Part of Inpatient Palliative Care Consult Service; J Palliat Med; Dec;21(12); 1761-1767
Bainbridge D, Brazil K, Krueger P, Ploeg J, Taniguchi A. (2010); A proposed systems approach to the evaluation of integrated palliative care. BMC Palliat Care; 9; 8
Boylan P, Joseph T, Hale G, Moreau C, Seamon M, Jones R. (2018); Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Heart Failure Self-Management Kits for Outpatient Transitions of Care; Consult Pharm; 33(3);152-158.
Boyle J, Speroff T, Katherine Worley, MLIS, Aize Cao, PhD, Goggins K, Dittus RS, Kripalani S, (2017); Low Health Literacy Is Associated with Increased Transitional Care Needs in Hospitalized Patients; J. Hosp. Med; 12(11); 918-924
Batey C. (2016); The Pharmacist’s Role in Care for Elective Total Hip Arthroplasty/ Total Knee Arthroplasty; Transitions of Care America’s Pharmacist; 32-34
Bowman B, Zheng S, Yang A, Schiller B, Morfín JA, Seek M, Lockridge RS. (2018); Improving Incident ESRD Care Via a Transitional Care Unit; Am J Kidney Dis; 72(2); 278-283
Bradley S, Kamwendo F, Chipeta E, Chimwaza W, de Pinho H, McAuliffe E. (2015); Too few staff, too many patients: a qualitative study of the impact on obstetric care providers and on quality of care in Malawi; BMC Pregnancy Childbirth; 15;65
Chen T.F. (2016); Pharmacist-led Home Medicines Review and Residential Medication Management Review: The Australian model; Drugs Aging; 33(3); 199–204
Cascini S, Agabiti N, Incalzi RA, et al. (2013); Pneumonia burden in elderly patients: a classification algorithm using administrative data; BMC Infect Dis; 13:559.
CAPC Press Release. Palliative Care Continues Its Annual Growth Trend, According to Latest Center to Advance Palliative Care Analysis. February 28, 2018
Clark K, Smith JM, Currow DC. (2012); The prevalence of bowel problems reported in a palliative care population. J Pain Symptom Manage; 43(6); 993-1000
Cawthon C, Walia S, Osborn CY, Niesner KJ, Schnipper JL, Kripalani S. (2012); Improving care transitions: the patient perspective; J Health Commun; Suppl 3:312-24
Corsonello A, Pedone C, Incalzi RA. (2010); Age-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes and related risk of adverse drug reactions. Curr Med Chem.; 17(6);571-84
Davison CM, Kahwa E, Atkinson U, Hepburn-Brown C, Aiken J, Dawkins P, Rae T, Edwards N, Roelofs S, MacFarlane D. (2013); Ethical challenges and opportunities for nurses in HIV and AIDS community-based participatory research in Jamaica. J Empir Res Hum Res Ethics; 8(1); 55-67
Dowel G. (2013); Pharmacists can help reduce avoidable hospital admissions in the community; The Pharmaceutical Journal
Deeks L.S., Cooper G.M., Draper B., Kurrle S., Gibson D.M. (2016); Dementia, medication and transitions of care; Res. Soc. Adm. Pharm; 12(3); 450-60
Demler TL. (2016); Pharmacist Involvement in Hospice and Palliative Care. U.S. Pharmacist®
Del Fabbro E. Palliative care: assessment and management of nausea and vomiting. UpToDate website. uptodate.com/contents/palliative-care-assessment-and-management-of-nausea-and-vomiting. (Accessed August 23, 2016)
DelBoccio S, DelBoccio S, Smith DF, Hicks M, Voight Lowe P, Graves-Rust JE, Volland J, Fryda S. (2015); Successes and Challenges in Patient Care Transition Programming: One Hospital's Journey; Online J Issues Nurs ;20(3):; 2
Devik SA, Olsen RM, Fiskvik IL, Halbostad T, Lassen T, Kuzina N, Enmarker I. (2018); Variations in drug-related problems detected by multidisciplinary teams in Norwegian nursing homes and home nursing care; Scand J Prim Health Care; 36(3); 291-299
Davis K, Schoenbaum SC, Audet AM. (2005); A 2020 vision of patient-centered primary care. J Gen Intern Med; 20(10); 953-7.
Ellenbecker CH, Samia L, Cushman MJ, et al. (2008); Patient Safety and Quality in Home Health Care. In: Hughes RG, editor. Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); Chapter 13.
Erichsén E, Milberg A, Jaarsma T, Friedrichsen MJ. (2015); Constipation in specialized palliative care: prevalence, definition, and patient-perceived symptom distress. J Palliat Med; 18(7); 585-592.
Farris KB, Carter BL, Xu Y, et al. (2014); Effect of a care transition intervention by pharmacists: an RCT; BMC Health Serv Res; 14; 406.
Fernandez E, Perez R, Hernandez A, Tejada P, Arteta M, Ramos JT. (2011); Factors and Mechanisms for Pharmacokinetic Differences between Pediatric Population and Adults. Pharmaceutics; 3(1); 53-72
Flanagan PS, Barns A. (2018); Current perspectives on pharmacist home visits: do we keep reinventing the wheel? ; Integrated Pharmacy Research and Practice; 7; 141–159.
Ferrah N, Lovell JJ, Ibrahim JE. (2017); Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Medication Errors Resulting in Hospitalization and Death of Nursing Home Residents. J Am Geriatr Soc; 65(2); 433-442.
Gray A. (2015); Refer-To-Pharmacy: Pharmacy for the Next Generation Now! A Short Communication for Pharmacy; Pharmacy (Basel); 3(4);364-371.
Garza A. (2017); Transition of Care: An Opportunity for Community Pharmacists; PharmacyTimes
Grissinger M. (2015); Reduce readmissions with pharmacy programs that focus on transitions from the hospital to the community; P T; 40(4); 232-3.
Glare P, Miller J, Nikolova T, Tikoo R. (2011); Treating nausea and vomiting in palliative care: a review; Clin Interv Aging ;6:243-259
Gonçalves F. (2018); Deprescription in Advanced Cancer Patients.; Pharmacy (Basel).;6(3); 88.
Grönheit W, Popkirov S, Wehner T, Schlegel U, Wellmer J. (2018); Practical Management of Epileptic Seizures and Status Epilepticus in Adult Palliative Care Patients. Front Neurol; 9; 595
Goodman M, Low J, Wilkinson S. (2005); Constipation management in palliative care: a survey of practices in the United Kingdom. J Pain Symptom Manage; 29(3); 238-244
Haggan M. Palliative care: Pharmacist breaks down roadblocks. AJP.com.au News 26/05/2017.
Hofmeister M, Memedovich A, Dowsett LE, et al. (2018); Palliative care in the home: a scoping review of study quality, primary outcomes, and thematic component analysis. ; BMC Palliat Care; 17(1);41
Irani E, Hirschman KB, Cacchione PZ, Bowles KH. (2018); Home health nurse decision-making regarding visit intensity planning for newly admitted patients: a qualitative descriptive study; Home Health Care Serv Q; 37(3);211-231
Jordan M, Keefer PM, Lee YA, Meade K, Snaman JM, Wolfe J, Kamal A, Rosenberg A. (2018); Top Ten Tips Palliative Care Clinicians Should Know About Caring for Children. J Palliat Med; 21(12); 1783-1789
Kristeller J. (2014); Transition of care: pharmacist help needed; Hosp Pharm; 49(3); 215-6.
Kripalani S, Roumie CL, Dalal AK, et al. (2012); Effect of a pharmacist intervention on clinically important medication errors after hospital discharge: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. ; 157(1); 1-10.
Landers S, Madigan E, Leff B, Rosati RJ, McCann BA, Hornbake R, MacMillan R, Jones K, Bowles K, Dowding D, Lee T, Moorhead T, Rodriguez S, Breese E. (2016); The Future of Home Health Care: A Strategic Framework for Optimizing Value.; Home Health Care Manag Pract; 28(4);262-278
Lofters A, Guilcher S, Maulkhan N, Milligan J, Lee J. (2016); Patients living with disabilities: The need for high-quality primary care. Can Fam Physician; 62(8):e457-64.
Louis AJ, Arora VM, Matthiesen MI, Meltzer DO, Press VG. (2016); Screening Hospitalized Patients for Low Health Literacy: Beyond the REALM of Possibility?; Health Educ Behav; 44(3); 360-364.
Lee HR, Yi SY, Kim DY. (2013); Evaluation of Prescribing Medications for Terminal Cancer Patients near Death: Essential or Futile. Cancer Res Treat; 45(3); 220-5.
Mason V. (2016); Pharmacist House Calls Improve Health of Virginia Mason Heart Failure Patients. News Release
Mekonnen AB, McLachlan AJ, Brien JA. (2016); Effectiveness of pharmacist-led medication reconciliation programmes on clinical outcomes at hospital transitions: a systematic review and meta-analysis; BMJ Open. ;6(2):e010003
Manabe T, Teramoto S, Tamiya N, Okochi J, Hizawa N. (2015); Risk Factors for Aspiration Pneumonia in Older Adults; PLoS One; 10(10); e0140060.
Medscape Pharmacists (2007); Methadone, Pain Management, and Palliative Care. Available From: https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/550895
McDerby N, Naunton M, Shield A, Bail K, Kosari S. (2018); Feasibility of Integrating Residential Care Pharmacists into Aged Care Homes to Improve Quality Use of Medicines: Study Protocol for a Non-Randomised Controlled Pilot Trial; Int J Environ Res Public Health;15(3); 499
Mangoni AA, Jackson SH. (2014); Age-related changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics: basic principles and practical applications; Br J Clin Pharmacol; 57(1); 6-14.
Masman AD, van Dijk M, Tibboel D, Baar FP, Mathôt RA. (2015); Medication use during end-of-life care in a palliative care centre. Int J Clin Pharm; 37(5); 767-775
Mansukhani RP, Bridgeman MB, Candelario D, Eckert LJ. (2015); Exploring Transitional Care: Evidence-Based Strategies for Improving Provider Communication and Reducing Readmissions; P T; 40(10); 690-4.
Mohiuddin AK. (2019); Community and Clinical Pharmacists in Transition Care; Glob J Pharmacia Sci; 7(2); 555706.
National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization. Standards of Practice for Pediatric Palliative Care and Hospice. Available From: https://www.nhpco.org/sites/default/files/public/quality/Ped_Pall_Care%20_Standard.pdf.pdf
Nguyen TS, Nguyen TLH, Van Pham TT, Hua S, Ngo QC, Li SC. (2018); Pharmacists' training to improve inhaler technique of patients with COPD in Vietnam; Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis; 13; 1863-1872
NHS England. Medicines optimisation in care homes. Available From: https://www.england.nhs.uk/commissioning/primary-care/pharmacy/medicines-optimisation-in-care-homes/
National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN). (2013); NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®): palliative care
National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (NCC-C, UK), Cardiff. (2012); Opioids in palliative care: safe and effective prescribing of strong opioids for pain in palliative care of adults
Patton AP, Liu Y, Hartwig DM, May JR, Moon J, Stoner SC, Guthrie KD. (2017); Community pharmacy transition of care services and rural hospital readmissions: A case study; J Am Pharm Assoc (2003); 57(3S); S252-S258.e3
Patel A, Dunmore-Griffith J, Lutz S, Johnstone PA. (2013); Radiation therapy in the last month of life; Rep Pract Oncol Radiother; 19(3); 191-4
Rak A, Raina R, Suh TT, Krishnappa V, Darusz J, Sidoti CW, Gupta M. (2017); Palliative care for patients with end-stage renal disease: approach to treatment that aims to improve quality of life and relieve suffering for patients (and families) with chronic illnesses. Clin Kidney J; 10(1); 68-73.
Riffin C, Van Ness PH, Wolff JL, Fried T. (2017); Family and Other Unpaid Caregivers and Older Adults with and without Dementia and Disability; J Am Geriatr Soc; 65(8); 1821-1828.
Rinne ST, Lindenauer PK, Au DH. (2018); Intensive Intervention to Improve Outcomes for Patients With COPD; JAMA; 320(22); 2322–2324
Rydeman, Ingbritt. “Discharged From Hospital And In Need Of Home Care Nursing – Experience Of Older Persons , Their Relatives And Care Professionals.” (2012).
Rose L, Istanboulian L, Carriere L and others. (2018); Program of Integrated Care for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Multiple Comorbidities (PIC COPD+): a randomised controlled trial; European Respiratory Journal; 51(1) 1701567
Rowlands G, Protheroe J, Winkley J, Richardson M, Seed PT, Rudd R. (2015); A mismatch between population health literacy and the complexity of health information: an observational study; Br J Gen Pract; 65(635);e379-86.
Pai AB, Cardone KE, Manley HJ, St Peter WL, Shaffer R, Somers M, Mehrotra R; (2013); Dialysis Advisory Group of American Society of Nephrology. Medication reconciliation and therapy management in dialysis-dependent patients: need for a systematic approach; Clin J Am Soc Nephrol; 8(11); 1988-99
Payne R.A., Abel G.A., Avery A.J., Mercer S.W., Roland M.O. (2014); Is polypharmacy always hazardous? A retrospective cohort analysis using linked electronic health records from primary and secondary care; Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol; 77(6); 1073–1082
Sautter JM, Tulsky JA, Johnson KS, Olsen MK, Burton-Chase AM, Lindquist JH, Zimmerman S, Steinhauser KE. (2014); Caregiver experience during advanced chronic illness and last year of life. J Am Geriatr Soc; 62(6); 1082-90.
Setter SM, Corbett CF, Neumiller JJ. (2012); Transitional care: exploring the home healthcare nurse's role in medication management; Home healthcare nurse; 30(1); 19-26
Shannon R, Jenifer M, Tom L, Mary Ann B. (2013); The Role of a Pharmacist on the Home Care Team: A Collaborative Model Between a College of Pharmacy and a Visiting Nurse Agency; Home Healthcare ; 31(2); 80-7
Sugathan S, Singh D and others. (2014); Reported Prevalence And Risk Factors Of Chronic Non Communicable Diseases Among Inmates Of Old-Age Homes In Ipoh, Malaysia; International Journal of Preventive and Therapeutic Medicine; 2(4); OCT-DEC
Simonetti AF, Viasus D, Garcia-Vidal C, Carratalà J. (2014); Management of community-acquired pneumonia in older adults; Ther Adv Infect Dis; 2(1); 3-16.
Sen S, Bowen JF, Ganetsky VS, Hadley D, Melody K, Otsuka S, Vanmali R, Thomas T. (2014); Pharmacists implementing transitions of care in inpatient, ambulatory and community practice settings. Pharm Pract (Granada) ;12(2); 439
Stevenson S. (2017); The 5 Most Common Infections in the Elderly. A Place For Mom Posted.
Stover M. (2018); How Technology Solutions Are Shaping The Future Of Home Healthcare; Web healthworkscollective.com
Tait P, Morris B, To T. (2014); Core palliative medicines Meeting the needs of non-complex community patients; Australian Family Physician; 43(1); 29-32
Trang J, Martinez A, Aslam S, Duong MT. (2015); Pharmacist Advancement of Transitions of Care to Home (PATCH) Service; Hosp Pharm; 50(11); 994-1002.
Tong E.Y., Roman C.P., Mitra B., Yip G.S., Gibbs H., Newnham H.H., Smit D.V., Galbraith K., Dooley M.J. (2017); Reducing medication errors in hospital discharge summaries: A randomised controlled trial; Med. J. Aust; 206(1);36-39
Tonkin-Crine S, Okamoto I, Leydon GM, Murtagh FE, Farrington K, Caskey F, Rayner H, Roderick P. (2015); Understanding by older patients of dialysis and conservative management for chronic kidney failure; Am J Kidney Dis; 65(3);443-50
van der Molen T, van Boven JF, Maguire T, Goyal P, Altman P. (2016); Optimizing identification and management of COPD patients - reviewing the role of the community pharmacist; Br J Clin Pharmacol; 83(1);192-201.
Wei X, Ma Z, Yu N, et al. (2017); Risk factors predict frequent hospitalization in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD; Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis; 13; 121-129
Walus AN, Woloschuk DMM. (2017); Impact of Pharmacists in a Community-Based Home Care Service: A Pilot Program. Can J Hosp Pharm; 70(6); 435-442.
Wolstenholme B. (2011); Medication-Related Problems in Geriatric Pharmacology; Aging Well Summer; 4(3); 8
Walker KA, Scarpaci L, McPherson ML. (2010); Fifty reasons to love your palliative care pharmacist; Am J Hosp Palliat Med; 27(8); 511-513
Wilson DM, Cohen J, Deliens L, Hewitt JA, Houttekier D. (2013); The preferred place of last days: results of a representative population-based public survey. J Palliat Med.; 16; 502–508
Wick JY. (2015); Pharmacist Home Visits Improve Heart Failure Management. PharmacyTimes
Web Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). About Transitional Care. Available From: https://www.pcori.org/research-results/transitional-care/about-transitional-care