PharmaTutor <p><span style="font-family: verdana,geneva,sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: georgia,serif;">The PharmaTutor&nbsp; <strong>(ISSN: 2347 - 7881)</strong> is a monthly published online journal, which publishes innovative research papers, reviews, mini-reviews, short communications and notes dealing with Pharmaceutical Sciences &amp; Lifesciences.<br></span></span></p> PharmaTutor Edu Labs en-US PharmaTutor 2347-7881 Pharmaco-Economics: The Cost of Health <p><span style="font-family: verdana,geneva,sans-serif;">Pharmacoeconomics has been characterized as the depiction and examination of the cost of medication treatment to healthcare frameworks and society. All the more explicitly, pharmacoeconomic look into is the way toward recognizing, estimating, and contrasting the costs, dangers, and advantages of programs, services, or treatments and figuring out which elective delivers the best wellbeing result for the asset contributed. This data can help clinical chiefs in picking the most cost-effective treatment alternatives. Pharmacoeconomics is a division of results examine that can be utilized to measure the estimation of pharmaceutical care items and services. Pharmaceutical care has been characterized as the mindful arrangement of medication treatment for the reasons for accomplishing unequivocal results.</span></p> A. K. Mohiuddin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 7 3 1 18 10.29161/PT.v7.i3.2019.1 Three dimensional (3D) drug printing: A revolution in pharmaceutical science <p>Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a manufacturing method in which objects are made by fusing or depositing materials in successive layers laid down under computer control. These objects can be of almost any shape or geometry and are produced from a 3D model as defined in a computer-aided design (CAD). Since the inception of 3D printing in 1984 it has evolved immensely and has been used in many fields including medicine, architecture and more recently in pharmaceutical manufacturing. From lab grown organs to drug delivery devices, 3D printing is advancing rapidly and in future course of time it is going to transform and change the way we live and work.</p> <p>3D printing in pharmaceuticals has been used to produce many novel dosage forms like microcapsules, Complex Drug-Release Profiles, nanosuspensions, and multilayered drug delivery devices. From industrial point of view it also offers important advantages like, cost-effectiveness, increased productivity, democratization of design and manufacturing, and enhanced collaboration.</p> <p>Keeping in view the recent approval given by USFDA to the first 3D printed antiepileptic drug the focus has now shifted to the personalized medicine as it offers an important benefit to patients who need medications that have narrow therapeutic indices or a higher predilection to be influenced by genetic polymorphisms. 3D printer is now seen as a valuable, efficient and economical tool to manufacture individualized medications, tailored to specific patients based on their needs and thereby change the future of pharmacy practice in general and pharmaceutical care in particular.</p> Mohamed Mazhar Ubaid Tariq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 7 3 19 25 10.29161/PT.v7.i3.2019.19 Case on Pituitary Macroadenoma <p>Pituitary adenomas are slowly progressive and usually benign type of tumors which may induce a poor quality of life of patients due to progressive loss of vision over time by compression of optic nerves, cavernous sinus, optic chiasm. Its therapy generally involves differential diagnosis with an MRI of Brain and surgical option with radiation therapy. Here with we present a case of 48 year old women who had undergone microscopic transnasal transphenorbital excision of tumor two years ago of pituitary macroadenoma. She was not on any chemotherapy which led to a recurrence of her tumor. Presently her MRI scan and histopathologic reports confirms the diagnosis of Pituitary macroadenoma which was effectively treated surgically and put up on Dihydroartemisnin, a derivative of Artemether which has similar cytotoxic properties as that of artemether.</p> Vedha pal S Jeyamani Asha K Rajan Kaviya U Merlin Joan Lavanya R ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 7 3 26 30 10.29161/PT.v7.i3.2019.26 In silico Pharmacokinetics and Molecular Docking Studies of Lead Compounds Derived from Diospyros Mespiliformis <p>Pharmacokinetics and toxicity profile along with efficacy are the major determinants for successful drug development. This study was carried out to determine the pharmacokinetic profile, potential biological activities and toxicity of diospyrin, lupeol and plumbagin using in silico approaches. The Swiss ADME tool was used to calculate the molecular properties of the ligands based on Lipinski’s rule of five (5).All ligands in the present study satisfied the rule. Using the Swiss ADME tool, the pharmacokinetic profile of the compounds was evaluated. Protox-II server was used to predict the organ toxicities and toxicological end points of the ligands and their LD50. Plumbagin is found to have both mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Lupeol and diospyrin are reported to be immunotoxic. Lupeol has LD50 of 2000mg/kg. Diospyrin and plumbagin have 16mg/kg. Swiss target prediction server was used to identify the various potential target. The target prediction suggests that plumbagin and lupeol have high preference for Microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT). The best target for diospyrin was Aurora kinase A. Molecular docking study was conducted using AutoDock vina in The Python Prescription (PyRx) 0.8 virtual screening tool. Plumbagin and lupeol were docked against Microtubule associated protein tau. The dockings scores based on binding energy were; plumbagin -33.8 (kcal/mole) and lupeol -44.7 (kcal/mole). Diospyrin showed a binding energy of -10.7 (kcal/mole) against Aurora A kinase. Results in this study suggest that diospyrin may serve as an important aurora kinase inhibitor while lupeol and plumbagin may be useful in treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.</p> Aliyu Hamidu Ahmed Yusuf Ibrahim Alkali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 7 3 31 37 10.29161/PT.v7.i3.2019.31 Glanzmann’s Thrombasthenia: A Rare Bleeding Disorder <p>Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia (GT) is a rare, autosomal recessive bleeding disorder characterized by prolonged bleeding time and impairment in aggregation of platelets and impairment in clot retraction. The physiological defect includes impairment of glycoprotein receptor’s (GPIIb/IIIa complex) present on platelet membrane which mediates platelet aggregation through fibrinogen binding. Purpose of this study is to get&nbsp; all of us know about this rare condition. A 16-year old female patient presented with repeated episodes of menstrual bleeding since 4years. She was a k/c/o Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. She was treated with antifibrinolytics, IV fluids and then discharged. Early diagnosis and proper supportive care are the measures for prognosis of Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia.</p> Ayyagari Sri Harsha Hari Priya Mullamuri Sowmya Reddy Durga Prasad T S ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 7 3 38 40 10.29161/PT.v7.i3.2019.38 Drug Utilization of Anti Hypertensives in CKD Patients: A Randomized Prospective Study at a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital <p>AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate the clinical use of Antihypertensive drugs in patients with chronic Kidney disease at a tertiary care teaching hospital.</p> <p>METHOD: An observational, prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Hyderabad, T.S, India. A total of 184 patients from the inpatient department of nephrology Department at Gleneagles Global Hospitals, Bairamalguda, LB Nagar, Hyderabad. All information significant to the study was collected from the case records and discussions conducted with the in-patients and bystanders during ward rounds, with the support of a physician, which were analyzed by SPSS software. Moreover, daily follow-ups were conducted to assemble data on amendment in therapy, add-on therapy, and clinical improvement.</p> <p>RESULTS: The Mean Age was 59.29 years and the standard deviation was 1.116 of the population, 60% were smokers and 40% were alcoholics. The most commonly used Class of anti-hypertensive drugs are Calcium channel blockers with percentage of 64.13%, Diuretics with percentage of 57.60%, β blockers with percentage of 43.47%. Whereas most commonly used Calcium channel blockers are Amlodipine with percentage of 52%, and Cilindipine with percentage of 9.10%.Diuretics are are Furosemide with percentage of 36.90% and Toresemide 11.40%. Most commonly used Adenergic Antagonist are in β Blockers are Metoprolol with percentage of 31.50%, In α blockers are prazosin with percentage of 26%, In α+β blocker are Carvedilol with percentage of 8.60%. Most commonly used ARB’s are Telmisartan with percentage of 6.50%, and ACE’s are Ramipril with percentage of 1%. Most commonly used central sympatholytics are Clonidine with percentage of 18.40%, Vasodilators are Minoxidil with percentage of 1%. Medication adherence have been done, In which patients with High Adherence are with percentage of 16.21%, Medium Adherence are with percentage of 45.94%, Low Adherence are with percentage of 37%. This is done by Morisky medication adherence scale 8.</p> <p>CONCLUSION: We have concluded that the CCB’s, diuretics and β-blockers are the most commonly used anti-hypertensive classes in hypertensive patients with CKD. Use of anti-hypertensives in CKD patients does not deviate from the guidelines laid down by NKF KDOQI guidelines. The patients should be educated about the rational use of drugs to decrease medication adherence.</p> Ashika M Ranjani Sahithi B Goud Amatul Wadood Sumayya Syeda Nabila Firdous Amatul Ali Sameera ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 7 3 41 72 10.29161/PT.v7.i3.2019.41 Estimation of Lacidipine in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form by Zero Order, and First Order Derivative UV Spectrophotometric Methods <p><span style="font-family: verdana,geneva,sans-serif;">The present research work was broadly focused on the estimation of in Lacidipine in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form by using two UV spectrophotometric methods like Zero order spectroscopy (Method-1), and first order derivative spectroscopy (Method-2). The solvent employed for the two methods was methanol and absorption maximum was found to be 284nm, and 277nm respectively. The developed methods showed linearity sin the range between 20-100µg/ml. The correlation co-efficient was ≥ 0.999. The precision (%RSD) for all the two methods was found to be ≤2. The accuracy was performed by spiking standard drug at 50,100 and 150% of the test concentration and the values obtained were within the limits. The assay for the formulation was found to be within limits. All the results were satisfactory the developed methods were linear, accurate, reproducible and robust.</span></p> Girija Dandu Padma Akkimi A.Tirupathi Reddy Basu Venkateswara Reddy ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-03-01 2019-03-01 7 3 73 78 10.29161/PT.v7.i3.2019.73