PharmaTutor <p><span style="font-family: verdana,geneva,sans-serif;"><span style="font-family: georgia,serif;">The PharmaTutor&nbsp; <strong>(ISSN: 2347 - 7881)</strong> is a monthly published online journal, which publishes innovative research papers, reviews, mini-reviews, short communications and notes dealing with Pharmaceutical Sciences &amp; Lifesciences.<br></span></span></p> PharmaTutor Edu Labs en-US PharmaTutor 2347-7881 Prescription Pattern of Antibiotics in Paediatric Wards of a Tertiary Hospital in North West Nigeria: A Retrospective Study <p><span style="font-family: verdana,geneva,sans-serif;">The main aim of this study was to evaluate the prescribing pattern of antibiotics in pediatric patients. A retrospective analysis of patients with bacterial infections admitted into the Paediatric Wards over a period of 3months. Files of 100 patients were randomly selected and included in this study. A proforma was used for data collection, information retrieved from patients records include: Demographic Data, Culture and Sensitivity pattern, Clinical Information, Duration of Hospital Stay, Outcome, type, Class and Route of administration of antibiotics. Out of the 100 patients included in this study, 35(35%) were below one year, 50(50%) were between 1-5years and 15(15%) were between 6-12years.&nbsp; More patients between the ages of 1-5years were admitted with bacterial infections. Out of the 100 patients included in this study 63 (63%) were males and 37(37%) were females. Out of the 100 patients, 27(27%) had septicemia, 48(48%) bronchopneumonia, 6(6%) osteomyelitis, 14(14%) had mixed infections. The remaining patients had urinary tract infection, upper respiratory tract infection and typhoid enteritis. In a total of 229 prescriptions, only 38 (16.6%) were prescribed based on culture result. Most of the antibiotic prescriptions were based on clinical diagnosis, not on culture and sensitivity pattern. In present study 83% of antibiotics were administered by parenteral route and 17% by oral route. The Cephalosporins were the most prescribed antibiotics. Cefuroxime 63(27%) was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic. Ampicillin with Sulbactam was found to be the most frequently prescribed drug combination</span>.</p> Aliyu Hamidu Ahmed Umar Mukhtar Danmusa yusuf Ibrahim Alkali ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 7 7 1 6 Development of Ibuprofen-loaded Emulsion from Eutectic Mixture and Eudragit RL 100 <p><span style="font-family: verdana,geneva,sans-serif;">The main objective of this study was to formulate an Ibuprofen loaded emulsion from the eutectic mixture and Eudragit RL 100. The eutectic mixture was formed with camphor and menthol which was approved by the FDA. A eutectic mixture is defined as a combination of two or more components at a certain ratio intermingle to form a new chemical compound resulting in a system having a lower melting point than either of the components. The formulated emulsion from the eutectic mixture was evaluated for various studies like pH checking, stability checking by centrifugation, viscosity, particle size analysis, quantitative drug analysis, thermodegradation and in-vitro drug release studies. Neutral pH values resulted in the formulations. The formulation was stable even after it was centrifuged for 5000 rpm for 30 min. Viscosity results showed the formulation was less viscous results in good spreadability. Particle size was determined with particle size analyzer. Drug analysis results revealed about 96 % of drugs are incorporated into the formulation. Thermodegradation results proved that there was no spillage of drugs from the formulations even when the drug was stored at different temperatures. In-vitro drug release study was performed by varying drug concentrations. The results showed there was no change in the drug release even after varying the drug concentration. From the results it was concluded that Ibuprofen was successfully formulated as an emulsion with the help of eutectic mixture a Eudragit RL 100.</span></p> Raja Sekharan Shunmugaperumal Tamilvanan S Rajadurai S Mohammed Ibrahim K Kavipriya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 7 7 7 13 The Individual Effect of Surfactants on The Penetration of Glimepiride Transdermal Patches Using Dibutylpthalate as a Plasticizer <p class="rtejustify"><span style="font-family: verdana,geneva,sans-serif;"><strong>Objective</strong><br> Glimepiride is an anti-diabetic drug with shorter half-life of 5 hrs. Glimepiride penetration into skin is difficulty. To study effects the penetration of glimepiride using different surfactants using dibutylpthalate.</span></p> <p class="rtejustify"><span style="font-family: verdana,geneva,sans-serif;"><strong>Methods</strong><br> Glimepiride transdermal Patches are prepared by using solvent casting method.&nbsp; Eudragit E -100, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate 60 are used as a penetration enhancers. Dibutylpthalate acts as a plasticizer for the penetration enhancement.</span></p> <p class="rtejustify"><span style="font-family: verdana,geneva,sans-serif;"><strong>Results</strong><br> The present study was to formulate and evaluate transdermal drug delivery system of Glimepiride. Results were evaluated for Thickness, Tensile strength, Folding endurance, and Drug content and In vitro penetration study was performed by using Franz diffusion cell. The drug content in transdermal patch F-1 shows 98,F-2 shows 93, F-3 shows 92.the drug permeation through matrix membrane shows good release with Eudragit E-100 copolymer and surfactant SLS. In comparison with three surfactants SLS gives good release for glimepiride with Eudragit E-100 matrix membrane.</span></p> <p class="rtejustify"><span style="font-family: verdana,geneva,sans-serif;"><strong>Conclusion</strong><br> From the results glimepiride with SLS anionic surfactant shows good penetration. Dibutylpthalate acts a plasticizer which improves the penetration of glimepiride.</span></p> Mounika P Rinku mathappan Sukriti Vishwas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 7 7 14 17 In Silico Molecular Docking of Antidiabetic Agents from Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh against Glycogen Synthase Kinase <p>Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder which affects the people of all groups around the world. Although medication is available in the market but plant derived compounds are often preferable to everyone due to their less toxicity and side effects. This study has been designed to investigate the interaction between medicinal plant derived antidiabetic agents (Arjunic acid, Quercetin and Gallic Acid) and regulatory target enzyme, Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Beta (GSK3B). Quercetin showed the strong interaction with the target molecule among the all compounds. However, further in vitro study is required to find out the best remedy of diabetes.</p> Nazmul Islam Prottoy Aisha Siddiqua Boby Bishajit Sarkar Asad Ullah Sohana Hossain ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 7 7 18 20 Dermal Delivery of Protein and Peptides: Recent advances and clinical outcome <p><span style="font-family: verdana,geneva,sans-serif;">Proteins and peptides are mostly desirable in many diseased states. Most widely employed method of administration for therapeutic proteins and peptides is Parenteral route. Requirement of repeated injections is because of short in vivo half-life response in poor patient compliance. Non-invasive drug delivery routes such as nasal, transdermal, oral, and pulmonary offer several benefits over parenteral administration. Low permeability and intrinsic physicochemical properties across biological membrane limits protein delivery via adjective routes. Delivering through nanostructured delivery carriers is one of the method to improve protein and peptide absorption. Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have illustrated significant benefits over other delivery systems. This article summarizes the application of polymeric NPs for protein and peptide drug delivery following nasal, oral, ocular, pulmonary, transdermal, and parenteral administrations. The aim of review is to highlight and explore technological developments in the field of soft matter nanocarriers for the delivery of proteins and peptides via the eye, the nose, the skin, and the lungs and to provide insights in advantages, practicability and limitations of recent advances.</span></p> Divya chauhan Khushbu Patel Rabiya Sodha Kinjal Vadhwani Kapil Daxini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-07-01 2019-07-01 7 7 21 31