Nitazoxanide: A Review of Analytical Methods

  • Bhushan Firake JSPM’s Jayawantrao Sawant College of Pharmacy & Research,
  • Ranjini Chettiar JSPM’s Jayawantrao Sawant College of Pharmacy & Research
  • Tejal Firake Dignus Consulting Pvt. Ltd.
Keywords: Nitazoxanide, Analytical methods, antiprotozoal, anthelminthic

Abstract

Nitazoxanide is an antiprotozoal and anthelmintic agent, which is mostly used in the treatment and prevention of wide variety of protozoa, helminthes and gram negative organisms.  This article studies published analytical techniques that are reported so far for the determination of nitazoxanide in bulk, pharmaceutical formulation and biological samples. They include various techniques like spectrophotometry, electrochemical methods, capillary electrophoresis, high performance liquid chromatography, high performance thin layer chromatography, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrophotometry.

Author Biographies

Bhushan Firake, JSPM’s Jayawantrao Sawant College of Pharmacy & Research,

Depertment of Pharmaceutical Analysis,
JSPM’s Jayawantrao Sawant College of Pharmacy & Research,
Hadapar, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Ranjini Chettiar, JSPM’s Jayawantrao Sawant College of Pharmacy & Research

Depertment of Pharmaceutical Analysis,
JSPM’s Jayawantrao Sawant College of Pharmacy & Research,
Hadapar, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Tejal Firake, Dignus Consulting Pvt. Ltd.

Dignus Consulting Pvt. Ltd.,
Camp, Pune, Maharashtra, India

References

1. Rossignol, J.F and Cavier, R. 1976. New derivative of 2-benzamido-5-nitrothiazoles. ChemAbstr. 83, 28.
2. Fox, L.M., and Saravolatz, L.D., Clinical Infectious Diseases, 40, 2005, 1173.
3. Raether, W. and Hanel, H. 2003. Nitroheterocyclic drugs with broad spectrum activity. Parasitol. 90, 19-39.
4. Cravier, R. 1978. Development and validation of spectrophotometric methods for the estimation of nitazoxanide in tablet dosage forms. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 13, 539.
5. O'Neil, M.J. 2001. An Encyclopedia of Chemicals, Drugs and Biologicals. The Merck Index. 13th edition, pp.1177-1178.
6. Murphy, J.R. and Friedmann, J.C. 1985. Pre-clinical toxicology of nitazoxanide, a new antiparasitic compound. J. Appl. Toxicol. 5, 49-52.
7. Stockis, A., Deroubaix, X., Lins, R., Jeanbaptiste, B., Calderon, P. and Rossignol, J.F. 1996. Pharmacokinetics ofnitazoxanide after single oral dose administration in 6 healthy volunteers. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 34, 349-351.
8. Rossignol JF, Maisonneuve H (1984) Nitazoxanide in the treatment of Taeniasaginata and Hymenolepis nana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33: 511– 512.
9. www.drugbank.com.
10. www.wikipedia.com.
11. Sanjay Sharma, Sachin Kumar.Nitazoxanide stabilizing hypsochromic shift based method for its determination in bulk and in pharmaceutical formulationMIT International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 1, No. 1, January 2015, pp. 13–18.
12. Lopamudra Adhikari, Sanjiv Sahu, Sarbeswar Jagdev. Development and Validation of Spectrophotometric and Colorimetric Method for the determination of Nitazoxanide in its Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Form (Tablets).International Journal of ChemTech Research Vol.3, No.1, 131-135.
13. I. S. Sharma and M.C. Sharma.Development of Visible Spectrophotometric Methods for the Estimation of Nitazoxanide in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Formulation Using Ferric Chloride. American-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 6 (3): 155-160, 2011.
14. Fahima Aktar, Md. Ruhul Kuddus, Akter Hossen, Md. Khalid Hossain and Mohammad A. Rashid. Development and Validation of a Simple and Rapid UVSpectrophotometric Method for Assay of Nitazoxanide inPharmaceutical Dosage FormsBangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal 15(1): 47-51, 2012.
15. H.P.Singh, C. S. Sharma, Amar Deep Ankalgi, S. K. Agal and M. S. Ranawat. Spectrophotometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Nitazoxanideand Ofloxacin in Combined Bulk and Pharmaceutical FormulationsInternational Journal of PharmTech Research Vol. 3, No.1, 118-123.
16. Rajeev Jain, RajeevKumar Yadav,Jahangir AhmadRather. Voltammetric quantitation of nitazoxanide by glassy carbon electrode Journal ofPharmaceuticalAnalysis2013;3(6):452–455.
17. Hanaa S. El-Desoky; Mohamed M. Ghoneim; Mohamed M. Abdel-Galeil Stripping voltammetric methods for determination of the antiparasitic drug nitazoxanide in bulk form, pharmaceutical formulation and human serum,Journal of the Brazilian Chemical SocietyPrint version ISSN 0103-5053 J. Braz. Chem. Soc. 21:.4, 2010.
18. Hemlata Sharma, K K Jhankal, Ramlal Saini, D. K. Sharma,Voltammetric Assay of Antiviral Drug Nitazoxanide in Bulk Form, Human Breast Milk and Urine Sample International Journal of Recent Research and Review, Vol. III, September 2012.
19. Shital Gandhi, V. Mehta, and Sadhana Rajput, Simultaneous Voltammetric Determination of Nitazoxanide and Ofloxacin in Pharmaceutical Formulation Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011 Sep-Oct; 73(5): 583–586.
20. Ghada M. Hadad, Randa A. Abdel Salam and Samy Emara, Validated and Optimized High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Tizoxanide, The Main Active Metabolite of Nitazoxanide in Human Urine, Plasmaand Breast Milk Journal of Chromatographic Science, April 23, 2012.
21. Maha Hegazy, Amira Kessiba, Ahmed Emad E Gindy and Mohamed Abdelkawy, ValidatedStability Indicating RP-HPLC for Quantitation of Nitazoxanidein Presence of Its Alkaline Degradation Products and Their Characterizationby HPLC-Tandem Mass Spectrometry journal ofChromatographic Science Journal of Chromatographic Science, November17, 2013;1–11.
22. H1. M.C. Sharma and S. Sharma, Development and Validation of a Dissolution method with IsocraticHigh-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of tazoxanide and Ofloxacin in Pharmaceutical Dosage formAmerican-Eurasian Journal of Scientific Research 6 (4): 182-187, 2011
23. M. Sangeetha and C. Mahendran, RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of Ofloxacin and Nitazoxanide in tablet formulationJournal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(9):365-369
24. Hemendra P. Singh*, Sourabh K. Agal, Chandra S. Sharma, M S Ranawat and A D AnkalgiRP-HPLC methods for estimation of Nitazoxanide single and simultaneous estimation of Nitazoxanide with Ofloxacin in pharmaceutical dosage forms Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical ResearchJ. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2010, 2(4): 984-992
25. Jimish R Patel1*, Harpreet Singh Bedi2, Anil Middha2, Laxman M Prajapati1, Vijay K Parmar3RP-HPLC Method for Estimation of Nitazoxanide in Oral Suspension FormulationDer Pharma Chemica, 2012, 4 (3): 1140-1144(https://derpharmachemica.com/archive.html)
26. Selvadurai Muralidharan* Jaya raja Kumar and Sokkalingam Arumugam Dhanaraj Simultaneous Estimation of Nitazoxanide and Ofloxacin from Tablet Dosage Form by RP-HPLC Vol 1/Issue 4/July-August 2012 PhTechMed
27. T. Sakamoto, Y. Hiyama, Rapid determination of nitazoxanide in tablets using reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography, Pharmazie, 63: 2008, 503–507.
28. Jiang Shan , Zhou Dayong , Zhen WenhuaDetermination of Residual Solvents in Nitazoxanide by Headspace Gas Chromatography, Journal: China Pharmacist, Issue: 8, 2013, 1154 – 1156.
29. Zhanzhong Zhao, Lifang Zhang, Feiqun Xue , Xiaoyang Wang, Wenli Zheng, Tao Zhang, Chenzhong Fei, Keyu Zhang, Minqi Qiu, Ruixiang Xin, Fengkun Yang,Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis of nitazoxanide and its major metabolites in goatJournal of Chromatography BVolume 875, Issue 2, 15 November 2008, 4.
30. Huang X, Guo C, Chen Z, Liu Y, He L, Zeng Z, Yan C, Pan G, Li S. Metabolism ofnitazoxanide in rats, pigs, and chickens: Application of liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci., 2015 Sep 1;1000:147-54.
31. M.D. Malesuik, H.M.L. Gonçalves, C.S. Paim, E.E.S. Schapoval, and M. Steppe, LC: Analysis of Photodegradation Kinetics of Nitazoxanide in Pharmaceutical Formulations Journal of Chromatographic Science, Vol. 47, October 2009
32. Salvador Namur, Lizbeth Carino, Mario Gonzalez-de la Parra,Development and validation of a high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method, with densitometry, for quantitative analysis of tizoxanide (a Metabolite of Nitazoxanide) in human plasma, November 08, 2007.
33. C L Gopu, Shibu Thomas, A R Paradkar and KR Mahadik , A validated stabilityindicating HPTLC method for determination of nitazoxanide. Journal of scientific and industrial research vol.66, February 2007, 141-145.
Published
2017-09-01
How to Cite
[1]
Firake, B., Chettiar, R. and Firake, T. 2017. Nitazoxanide: A Review of Analytical Methods. PharmaTutor. 5, 9 (Sep. 2017), 61-68.